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Eng3190 Process Operation and Management - Full Investigation Report

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Chemical & Process Engineering

Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences

ENG3190 Process Operation and Management

FULL INVESTIGATION REPORT

REACTOR AND PHE1 ENEGRY BALANCE PROJECT

[pic 1]

Project Investigators:

Project Leader: Sharvari Raut

Sakshi Jain

Alexander Wiggins

Nadiah Fakhrurrazi

Khauram Khan

Ysanne Carr

Mychael Ochonogor

Suleiman Garo

Valentine Alagbogu

Duration of Investigation:

24/03/2014 to 28/3/2014

Date of Submission:

13/05/2014

Demonstrator:

Dr. David Faraday

Abstract

Plate heat exchangers can be used to achieve heat integration in a chemical plant by preheating cold water feed using a hot product stream. Plate heat exchangers have a stack of closely spaced thin plates, which are clamed together in a frame. The cold and hot fluids pass between alternative plates and plates are thin enough to allow heat transfer. They are cheaper to use and easy to maintain. One of the main aims of this project is to calculate the heat transfer co-efficient for this heat exchanger and analyse its variation with flow rate through the exchanger. The overall heat transfer co-efficient was calculated to be 200 ± 20 W m-2 C-1 with an efficiency of 54%.  The analysis of variation in heat transfer co-efficient with respect to flow rate gives a positive correlation.  The current heat exchanger was compared with the older exchanger and it was found the efficiency has been increased by approximately 2%.

The process uses external heat in the reactor vessel using a coil. The hot water passes through the coil to maintain the optimum temperature in the reactor for the required reaction to take place. This made of a thin copper tube and goes around the inside of the vessel. The heat transfer co-efficient for the coil-reactor arrangement is 1300 ± 50 W m-2 C-1.

An overall energy balance was conducted for both the above areas to verify and analyse the heat recovery from the overall process. The calculations and results for all the aims are given and analysed in detail in this project report.


Contents


Nomenclature

ρ = Density – kg/m3

µ[1] = Viscosity – Ns/m2

K = Thermal Conductivity – W/m-k

Cp = Specific Heat Capacity – J/kg-k

t = Time – Seconds/Hours/Minutes

T = Temperature - °C

Q = Volumetric flow-rate – m3/s

Di = Internal Tube Diameter – m

Ai = Internal Coil Area – m

Tt = Thickness of Tube – mm

Do = External Tube Diameter – mm

Ao = External Coil Cross-sectional Area – m2

Dav = Average Coil Diameter – m

L – Length of Paddle – m

Nt = Number of turns for Coils

Dg = Gap between Coils – mm

H – Total coil Height – mm

Kw = Thermal Conductivity of Stainless Steel – W m-1C-1

Dc = Coil Width – cm

N – Number of Revolutions – Rev/s

U – Velocity through the line – m/s

Dr = Reactor diameter – m

Aht = Total Heat Transfer Area – m2

Xw/Kw = Heat Transfer Resistance due to Coil Wall – m2/C/W

Ri = Fouling factor coil side – W m-2C-1

Ro = Fouling factor reactor side – W m-2C-1

h = Film Coefficient – W m-2C-1

U = Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient - W m-2C-1

Pr = Prandtl Number

Re = Reynold’s Number

Nu = Nusselt Number


List of Figures

Fig No.

Description

Page No.

1

Block Diagram of overall process

11

2

Reactor, RV1 inlet and outlet streams

15

3

Relationship between Overall HTC and product flow including standby time

26

4

Relationship between Overall HTC and Feed flow including standby time

26

5

Relationship between Overall HTC and Product flow including standby time

27

6

Relationship between Overall HTC and Feed flow including standby time

27

7

Relationship between product flow and time

A3

8

Relationship between Overall HTC and product flow including standby time

A3

9

Relationship between Overall HTC and feed flow including standby time

A3

10

Relationship between product flow and time

A4

11

Relationship between Overall HTC and product flow including standby time

A4

12

Relationship between Overall HTC and feed flow including standby time

A4

13

Relationship between Overall HTC and product flow including standby time

A5

14

Relationship between Overall HTC and product flow including standby time

A5

15

Relationship between Overall HTC and product flow including standby time

A5

16

Relationship between Overall HTC and product flow including standby time

A6

17

Relationship between Overall HTC and product flow including standby time

A6

18

Relationship between Overall HTC and product flow including standby time

A6

19

Relationship between product flow and time

A7

20

Relationship between Overall HTC and product flow including standby time

A7

21

Relationship between Overall HTC and feed flow including standby time

A7

22

Relationship between product flow and time

A8

23

Relationship between Overall HTC and product flow including standby time

A8

24

Relationship between Overall HTC and feed flow including standby time

A8

25

Flow rate against efficiency for Day 3 (13:11-14:11)

A9

26

Flow rate against efficiency for Day 4 (11:34-12:34)

A10

27

Flow rate against efficiency for Day 4 (10:34-11:34)

A11

28

Flow rate against efficiency for Day 5 (13:26-14:26)

A12

29

Flow rate against efficiency using data taken from 2013

A13

30

Comparison of flow rate vs efficiency for data taken in 2013 and 2014

A14

...

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