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Egyption Religion

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Ancient Egyptian Religion

Religion guided every aspect of Egyptian life. Egyptian religion was based on

polytheism, or the worship of many deities, except for during the reign of Akenaton. The

Egyptians had as many as 2000 gods and goddesses. Some, such as Amun, were

worshipped throughout the whole country, while others had only a local following. Often

gods and goddesses were represented as part human and part animal.

For example, Horus, the sky god, had the head of a hawk, and body of a human. They

considered animals such as the bull, the cat, and the crocodile to be holy. Their two chief

gods were Amon-Ra and Osiris. Amon-Ra was believed to be the sun god and the lord

of the universe. Osiris was the god of the underworld. Stories about him revolved

around the idea of immortality. Osiris was the god that made a peaceful afterlife

possible. The Egyptian "Book of the Dead" contains the major ideas and beliefs in the

ancient Egyptian religion. Because their religion stressed an afterlife, Egyptians devoted

much time and wealth to preparing for survival in the next world.

The Egyptians had many tales about how the world began. According to one legend, it

started with an ocean in darkness. Then a mound of dry land rose up and the sun god

Re appeared. He created light and all things. Another version has the sun God emerging

from a sacred blue lotus that grew out of the mud, while a third version has him

appearing as a scarab beetle on the eastern horizon.

Temples were considered dwelling places for the gods. They were everywhere. Each

city had a temple built for the god of that city. The purpose of the temple was to be a

cosmic center by which men had communication with the gods. As the priests became

more powerful, tombs became a part of great temples. Shown below is a typical temple

flood plan with the purposes of each section given.

The priests duty was to care for the gods and attend to their needs. The priests had

many duties such as funeral rites, teaching school, supervising the artists and works, and

advising people on problems.

Death and Funerals

The Egyptians saw death as a transitional stage in the progress to a better life in the

next world. They believed they could only reach their full potential after death. Each

person was thought to have three souls, the "ka," the "ba," and the "akh." For these to

function properly, it was considered essential for the body to survive intact. The entire

civilization of Ancient Egypt was based on religion, and their beliefs were important to



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