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Cruise Operations

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This report will consist of a brief history on general cruising, how it came about and the very first cruise. It will also detail information on two selected brands, P&O along with Carnival. Inclusive of this will be information on the 4ps, in this case; - price, place, people and promotion. The report will finish with some information on current issues with both the companies.

Evolution of Cruising

The first ever ship to offer passenger travel from NYC - UK was called the "Black Ball Line". This was an American cruise liner which was brought into service in 1818 (cruise working; date accessed 03/12/09). In the first century ship owners didn't make much changes to the appearance of their ships and how they were powered. up until the engine came into Fashion, in around the 1950;s. this enadbled more space in all areas of the ship as the space were not taken up by big funnels and steam engines. (job monkey: date assessed 03/12/09).

In 1958, it was the last year in which less people crossed the Atlantic by sea, this was due to the jet engine crossing over the north Atlantic. (berlitz guide; Douglas Ward. That's when shipping changed its ways, they assed the situation and by the 60's again it was cheaper to go by seas than it was to go by air. Many people crossed over the Atlantic by ship. Again the jet engine kicked up another storm as they introduced there latest invention the 747 jet engine, this again put a down side on the cruises as in tern they will have lost out on vital sales as everyone was interested in the new craze.

The shipping world is a multi-billion pound enterprise and is for ever increasing as more and more ships are being brought into service. An example of this is in November 2009 this year Royal Caribbean released one of their newest ships - Oasis of the seas was sailing the seas for her maiden voyage.

Below is a table taken from the berlitz guide to cruising 2009 that lists relevant years that have been a success to cruising.

Some interesting dates shown here are; 1982, cunard and P&O cruises were used as troop ships in the fulklands war. 1987 the carnival cruise line made its first stock offering. 1990 cunnard was charted for the gulf war again for transporting troops to and from places. All of these dates as you can see are dated from 1960, this is when the major cruising side took affect and became cruising as we know today.

P&O has a fascinating history dating back to before it was even a cruise line company. P&O started its life like many shipping companies in 1822, when it signed its first ever contract to send mails by sea. The companies first ever maiden voyage having a passenger carrying service was in 1904, renaming the old ship that once was used for mail.

However carnival's story doesn't start like this, the company carnival is a very modern cruise company with only 28 years experience in the industry starting out in 1972, which runs on the Miami coast in Sandbar (light house travel).

Between 1914 and the present day P&O have a very interesting past, taking on many cruise companies, (helping form the name they have today), significantly marking their 100 years of service with enthusiasm while being in the middle of the great depression, being hit by the biggest competition "the jet engine" yet pulling through it, but one date that stands out for shipping before 1930 is they switched to oil fuel. This was a big year for P&O

Carnival on the other hand never faced any of this; they joined when it was all common to cruise and when all the modern systems were in place. However they still have some interesting past dates considering they are not an old company. In 1978, they refitted the SA Vaal, originally the Transvaale castle, that served from Southampton - south Africa in the 60's, for a staggering 3 million pounds (simplon pc). Once refitted it was the fastest ship to cross from Miami to the Caribbean.

P&O marked up their first paper advertisement in 1843 stating a passenger service. Amazingly a new company on the scene showed other companies how to do it, in 1984, they were the first company to advertise their company on the T.V. This being a big break through for them as it meant they were more noted to the customers than other companies through brochures and flyers. (light house travel).

In 1996 Carnival were the first company to successfully build a 100,000 ton ship and sail. It wasn't until Arcadia, P&O's 4th ship that it was close to this mark, weighing in at 82,972. It wasn't until 2008 that P&O had a 100.000 ton ship. (berlitz guide).

Even though the company is new they seem to be always watching what other companies are doing and being one step ahead of them, as by the time Ventura was completed at 116,000 tons, carnival were once again close behind with the carnival freedom at 110,000.

By 2009 P&O had 7 ships in their fleet, not that many considering the length of time they have been a cruise company, carnival have 7 classes of ships, with 22 ships in total, known as the "fun ships".


P&O is made for all types of customers, the types of customers there are, are, Empty nesters, elderly people, young travellers. The reason for this is the ships offer all means of travel, for all types of customers, if you have small children with you, there are facilities that can fit your criteria, by supplying the onboard day centre where they can play in a safe environment. You tend to find a higher ratio of adults over the age of 40 on the ships due to the dress codes for dinner. Usually consisting of wearing dinner jackets etc, carnival however don't they have facilities that attract to all customers but their main customer profile is young people as it is a more laid back hence their brochure says "fun ships". There will be less empty nesters on this cruise and you will find a lot of younger people.

The contrast in people on the ships tends to be that you won't find as many elderly people on carnival due to the atmosphere and style of the ships, there is much more lively entertainment on the carnival cruise lines. The reason this is the case is, P&O have more formal nights, and on most nights you have to wear smart casual or formal. Carnival cruises prefer to wear what they want and not have to obey by a dress code. They won't to be able to relax and have fun like they can on carnival.

Some of P&O



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