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Cognitive Disorders

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Childhood Cognitive Disorders

 Mental Retardation

 Learning Disorders

 Communication Disorders

Mental Retardation

REMINDER: Code MR on Axis II

Diagnostic Criteria for MR

 impaired general intellectual functioning

 impaired adaptive functioning

 onset prior to age 18

Intellectual Functioning

* approximately males

Course

* life long (although adaptive functioning may improve)

* shortened life span in profound MR

Etiology

* 2/3 known

* Genetics

* Prenatal

* Perinatal

* Acquired Medical Condition

* Sociocultural Factors?

Treatment

* family education

* behavioral therapy

* pharmacological

Learning Disorders

 Reading Disorder

 Mathematics Disorder

 Disorder of Written Expression

 Learning Disorder, NOS

Diagnostic Criteria

 achievement below expected:

* based on age and education AND

* based on IQ

**2 SD discrepancy between IQ and achievement

A learning disorder is NOT diagnosed just because an academic score is low. The academic score must be lower than expected given the person's intelligence

Associated Features of LD

* low self-esteem

* school drop outs

* ADHD

* conduct disturbance

Epidemiology

* 2-10%

* > males

Etiology

 subtle disturbance in brain structure or function, which is either inherited or acquired in-utero

 neural disturbance results in difficulty integrating information from different brain regions

Onset & Course

* typically diagnosed in 1st-2nd grade

* usually life-long (sometimes abilities "catch up", which is explained by a "maturational lag")

Treatment

Psychotherapy

 for self-esteem, conduct problems

 parental

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