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Zen; Buddhism's trek through history, politics, and America Zen, or Zenno (as it is known by the Japanese word from which it derives), is the most common form of Buddhism practiced in the world today. All types of people from intellectuals to celebrities refer to themselves as Buddhist, but despite its popularity today in America, it has had a long history throughout the world. "Here none think of wealth or fame, All talk of right and wrong is quelled. In Autumn I rake the leaf-banked stream, In spring attend the nightingale. Who dares approach the lion's Mountain cave? Cold, robust, A Zen-person through and through, I let the spring breeze enter at the gate." -Daigu (1584-1669, Rinzai) (DailyZen) Zen Buddhism's history begins where Buddhism's history began. It originated on the continent of Asia around 500 B.C.. The founder of Buddhism; Gotama Siddhattha, a former price in what is now known as India, is known as "The Buddha," which roughly translates to " one who is awake" (Merit 102). "At the age of twenty-nine, deeply troubled by the suffering he saw around him, he renounced his privileged life to seek understanding. After six years of struggling as an ascetic he finally achieved enlightenment at age thirty-five" (DailyZen). In 475 A.D. a Buddhist teacher, Bodhidharma, traveled to China and introduced the teachings of Buddha there. In China Buddhism mixed with Taoism, and the result was the Ch'an School of Buddhism, and from there Ch'an spread to Japan where it is called Zen Buddhism (DailyZen). The Buddhist Religion has always been passed down from teacher to student, and through the use of books and sacred works such as the Malind-panha, Pali Tipitaka, and the Pitaka series (Merit 102). These books and teachers taught students of the religion the philosophies of the practice. They taught of Satori, or enlightenment, which is the main goal of the Zen Buddhist, which is to achieve peace of mind despite external turmoil ( Archer ninety-six). One way to reach enlightenment is through meditation. Zaren is sitting in meditative absorption as the shortest yet most steep way to reaching enlightenment (Zen 233). The Buddhists stressed the fact that existence is painful. They believed that suffering was a result of false human attachments to things that were impertinent, "including the attachment to the false notion of self or 'I'(DailyZen)." They said that, " the conditions that make an individual are precisely those that also give rise to suffering. Individuality involves limitation; limitation ends in suffering (Buddhism eighty-six)." They taught that ridding themselves of these attachments they could end suffering (DailyZen). " This pure Mind, the source of everything, Shines forever and on all with the brilliance Of its own perception... If you students of the Way desire knowledge of this great mystery, Only avoid attachment to any single thing beyond Mind.-Huang Po (DailyZen)." As well with the philosophical side of the teachings were the basics of Guidance and ethics. "Buddhist philosophy is both a system of thought and a set of ethical norms (Buddhism eighty-six)." It offers practical guidance in everyday social affairs. Socially, the Buddhists have often been thrown into the political arena. Due to the nature of politics, where originally, "in Vietnam, the Buddhist Community was not politically activated until it was mistreated (Brittanica ninety-two), "the Buddhists have been divided into two groups. There is the moderate group that was led by Thich Tri Quang, that claimed political neutrality, but any of their movements for peace were seen as a weakness in the face of communism by the government of Saigon. And there are the militant Buddhists, who support upheavals. One such incident of upheaval was in 1963 when " the government (of Vietnam) forbade the flying of the Buddhist flag during the May eighth celebration of Buddha's birthday (Britanica ninety-two). "A riot erupted by Buddhists against their cruel treatment, but it was it was put down by heavily armed guards. Not only did the government serve as a political persuader for the Buddhists, but the Roman Catholic Church was excessively partisan against the Buddhists, and the Ngo Dinn Diem family had an anti-Buddhist policy. The militant Buddhists also organized a coup against the Diem regime on November first, 1962, but it too was put down. The Buddhists also protest in more passive ways, "since 1963 there have been over thirty self- immolations of monks in South Vietnam protesting the ruin



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