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Biochemistry.

Essay by   •  February 22, 2019  •  Exam  •  1,090 Words (5 Pages)  •  53 Views

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BIOMOLECULES

Are molecules that are present or produced

by organisms.

• Biomolecules are organic molecules which

consists of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen

and phosphorus, which are non-metal

elements.

• These elements combines through covalent

Bonding

BIOCHEMISTRY

Study of substances found in living and

chemical reactions in the process of life.

•It’s goal is to understand the structure and

behaviour of biological molecules.

VOCABULARY

POLYMERS

• From Greek word polus meaning “many” build up

by smaller molecules.

MONOMERS

• From Greek word monos meaning “single” smaller

molecules that made up polymers.

• These are joined together by covalent bond.

BIOMOLECULES

MACROMOLECULES

(polymers)

• CARBOHYDRATES

• LIPIDS

• PROTEINS

• NUCLEIC ACIDS

MICROMOLECULES

(monomers)

• MINERALS

• GASES

• WATER

• SUGARS

• AMINO ACIDS

• NUCLEOTIDES

CLASSES OF BIOMOLECULES

• CARBOHYDRATES

• PROTEIN

• LIPIDS

• NUCLEIC ACID

CARBOHYDRATES

The most abundant biomolecules.

• The chief source of all organisms.

• Carbohydrates rich foods includes some fruits

sweets, rice, bread, pastas, beans, potatoes and

cereals.

• From French term hydrate de carbone,

meaning “hydrates of carbon”.

• Sometimes called “saccharide”, from Greek

sakcharon,

meaning “sugar”. The suffix –ose is use to

denote the

name saccharide.

• The production of these carbohydrates by

green plants is possible through

the process photosynthesis.

TYPES OF CARBOHYDRATES

MONOSACCHARIDES

the simplest carbohydrates. The only sugar that can be

absorbed and utilized by the body. Have molecular formula

of C6H12O6.

GLUCOSE

- sometimes referred to as dextrose.

- the most abundant monosaccharide in nature.

- it is found in the bloodstream and provides energy

of the body’s

cells and tissues.

FRUCTOSE

- known as the fruit sugar.

- sweetest among the sugars.

- can also be found in the nectar, molasses and

honey.

-from Latin word “fructus” for fruits, also known as

Levulos

GALACTOSE

- It does not occur freely in

nature.

- it is produced in the body

through the digestion of a lactose.

-from Greek “galact” for milk.

DISACCHARIDE

Contain two monosaccharide units bound together

by a covalent bond known glycosidic linkage. Have

molecular formula of C12H22011.

Sucrose – in French is “sucre”

- also known as table sugar.

- the most common and abundant disaccharide.

- it compost of one molecule of each

monosaccharides D-glucose

and D- fructose.

- mostly found in sugar beets and sugar cane

Maltose- in French is “malt”

- known as malt sugar.

- containing 2 units of glucose.

-found in germinating grains, use to make beer.

Lactose- in Latin “ lact” or milk.

- known as milk sugar

-containing glucose and galactose.

- Both sugars cannot be directly utilized by the body

unless broken down in to monosaccharides

POLYSACCHARIDES--- Carbohydrates that

contain ten monosaccharide units or more.

Cellulose- found in the cell wall of plants.

Glycogen – stored carbohydrates in animals.

- 2/3 of total body’s glycogen is

stored in muscles and the remaining 1/3 is

stored in liver.

Starch – stored carbohydrates in plants.

2 TYPES OF POLYSACCHARIDE

1.HOMOPOLYSACCHARIDE- if its

formed by the same type of

monosaccharide.

2.HETEROPOLYSACCHARIDE- are those

formed by different types of

monosaccharide.

PROTEIN

• Proteins are complex biomolecules that contain

amino acids linked through the peptide bond.

• They are the most versatile biomolecules.

• Proteins are known as building blocks of life.

• Perform variety of functions like catalyzing

metabolic reactions, replication of DNA, response

to stimuli,

and transporting molecules.

PROTEIN

Other functional roles of protein:

Catalysts

Antibodies

Contractile proteins (actin and myosin)

Hormonal proteins (insulin and

somatotropin)

Structural proteins (keratin, collagen)

Transport proteins (hemoglobin)

AMINO ACID

• The building block of protein.

• Protein is synthesized through translation

process in the ribosomes.

• There are 20 amino acids.

• Essential amino acids cannot be synthesized

by the body but can be obtained from food.

• Amino acid is composed of a central carbon

bonded to hydrogen, carboxyl group, an

amino group, and a side chain R group.

PROTEIN STRUCTURE

• The structure of the protein is simply the sequence of amino

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