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Annotated Bibliography For Democracy In Iraq

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Rhe effect of Ethnic Conflict in the Iraqi Government

Ethnic conflict threatens the success of the democracy being established in Iraq. Among the three sectors, Iraqi Shiites, Sunnis' and Kurds, ethnic conflict continues to jeopardize the progress of the democratic effort and in some cases the fractionalization is so strong there are threats of civil wars among the groups.

For many years under the Hussain-era regimen the Iraqi Sunnis ruled through intimidation and violence. Under the new government all individuals will be able to participate in the political process as well as have access to Iraqi resources which have been dominated by the Sunnis for years. Many Iraqis see this as an open window for opportunity and economic growth but, the future of the democracy will be short lived unless all groups can align and set aside the ethnic differences which now marginalize them.

Iraqis issues political difficulties stem from religious differences between the three major sectors. The religious diversities that each group embraces are channeled into their political system and the end result is ethnic conflict that is often violent.

Ethnic conflict and its relation to Iraq's past and present situation will be examined and how it relates to its government and the progress that Iraqi is trying to make in forming a democracy.

Soudriette, Richard W. "What Iraqi Elections Teach Us About Democracy Building." Journal of the Section of Individual Rights & Responsibilities. (Spring):22-C3

This article discusses the vital role that the United States has played in assisting companies turn away from dictatorship and toward democracy. With memories of millions who perished under the Hussein-era Iraqi's braved bombs and to vote in .large numbers, sending a clear message that many of them were in support of building a new democracy and ending years of war and turmoil in order for a more peaceful and democratic future where all citizens have say. Putting themselves at great personal risk, Iraqi's made a dignified statement to the world about voting as a human right, for one day the sounds of ballots dropping into Iraqi ballot boxes drowned out the sound of roadside bombs (Soudriette 2005:3) The Iraqi elections have embarked the difficult role of building a new democracy and have paved the way for other nations inkling the Palestinians, Egyptians and Saudi Arabians.

Ramsey, Allan "A Democratic Iraq?"

The Iraqi election results conformed to all expectations. There was a high turnout in the minority Shia and Kurdish communities which registered an 80 percent turnout. The turnout in the main Sunni areas was relatively low barely reaching the 16 percentile mark (Ramsey 2005:199).

According to Allan Ramsey (2005: 199), no party in Iraq has an overall majority, furthermore the Shia majority will be determined to remain in overall control. The Kurds can be expected to play a vital role in the new government being that they have recent experience in democracy and have run an efficient administration in virtual autonomy. The Sunni minority will find it difficult to relinquish the habit it has held for so long. They are by no means as weak as their representation might suggest.

The biggest issue prevalent in the new government is the fragmentation of religious and ethnic lines resulting in a society which outbreaks in civil warfare. Recent reports from Mosul suggest that a state of civil war between the Sunnis and Kurds already exist (Ramsey 2005: 200).

Among the Iraqis a democratic government seems to be embraced bay all in some form except perhaps among the more extreme Kurds.

Manny see the Sunnis a block to the progress of this democratic effort but in reality the future and success of this effort lies in the Sunnis not in the Kurds and Shi'as as many my misleadingly suggest. Iraq has never had a Shia government so it is impossible to say how it will cope with many problems it will expect to face (Ramsey 2005: 202-203). The Sunnis have always been the ones to occupy the key political, administrative and military post. The Sunnis are clannish, vigorous and ambitious people who dominate all aspects of the Iraqi government.

Vanhanen, Tatu (1999). "Domestic Ethnic Conflict and Ethnic Nepotism: A Comparative Analysis", Journal of Peace Research. (January):55-73.

"According to Tatu Vanhanen (1999:60) it is easier to obtain general knowledge of ethnic conflict than to measure their relative significance by reliable empirical data. The measurement of ethnic conflict is difficult because the nature of such conflict varies greatly. In estimating all aspects of ethnic conflict and the relative significance, Tatu takes into account two principle dimensions of ethnic conflict; institutionalized ethnic conflict and conflict in which participants resort to various forms of coercion such as violence.

Tatu states (1999:55) that ethnic conflict is common in all countries of the world where people are divided into separate ethnic groups, that may have racial, linguistic, tribal, religious or caste bias. Furthermore, Tatu hypothesized that significant ethnic division tends to lead to ethnic interest conflict in all societies and the more a society is ethnically divided, the more political and other interest conflict tend to become channeled into ethnic lines (1999-55).

Tatu studied ethnic conflict in its association with religion. From Tatu's research I was able to understand that the oldest religious groups may be anywhere



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