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Ancient World

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Brendan Keene

Ancient World 9:00a.m.

Question 1 - A

The modern scientific view on the development of human evolution and the development of culture has been the product of many scientific and archeological discoveries. Scientists and archeologist are always trying to answer the question of where we came from.

Scientist tell us that the Earth was life-less for billions of years emerged (Dunstan 5). Eventually single celled organisms developed. Over billions of year’s fish, amphibians, reptiles and eventually mammals emerged. It is from these mammals primates evolved, and it is from primates that we came from. At some point humans diverged from primates. A complete fossil record has yet to be discovered, there are still some missing links.

Charles Darwin published The Decent of Man, which outlined the evolution of man. Darwin laid out a theory that said humans developed there physical characteristics and culture in response to the requirements of survival (Dustan 3). Charles Darwin’s theory laid down a good template for the evolution of man. Scientific advances in dating techniques and archeological discoveries have helped fill in the blanks.

The modern theory on evolution has taking knowledge from the scientific communities, the archeological communities, and knows humans can be pretty confident knowing how we came about. A line of hominids can be traced back over five million years to when humans first climbed out of the trees. The first hominids evolved in Africa, at the same time Africa was drying up and its lush jungles turned to vase grass lands (Dunstan 6). Humans, being no longer protected by the trees, made some notable adaptations. Humans started to walk on two feet; this freed our hands to hold things and eventually led to tool making. Human’s hands also got much more dexterous which would allow the development of writing and art (Dunstan 6). Human’s brains increased in size, which in turn caused humans cranium to expand.

Humans, over the years, developed tool making to help them get food and survive. Humans were able to use fire to there advantage. Humans transformed from scavengers to intelligent hunters that used tools and strategy’s to take down big game. Humans needed to communicate and follow instructions to take down big game. This need to communicate fostered the growth of language. Homo-Sapiens had the first modern vocal tracks. The development of language was a monumental step for humans. Language allowed us to express emotions and feelings; it allowed us to use abstract thought. Language allowed larger groups of humans to exist together. Language allowed more sophisticated collaborations (Boyd). The use of speech was fundamental in the development of human culture.

Culture can be defined as the pattern of learned values, behaviors and beliefs that humans pass on from generation to generation (Dunstan 7). Culture developed when humans started hunting, making tools, working together, and developing abstract thought. . Humans started developing beliefs to explain the world around them; people started developing language and art. All these developments help build the early cultures of us humans. Culture can almost be seen as an organism itself. It is for ever changing and evolving, each culture passing along ideas to the next.

Human evolution and culture has come a long way. Humans have been evolving and adapting for millions of years. There are still many questions and mysteries that have yet to be solved. But, as long as scientist and archeologist keep trying to answer the questions of our past, new things and new information will continue to come into light.

Question 1 вЂ" B

The Paleolithic and Neolithic ages are periods in the Stone Age. During these periods humans spread out, continued to evolve and adapt to there surroundings, developed there tool making skills, developed language and developed religion. It was during these periods that modern man came to be.

The Paleolithic period is from about three million years ago to 10,000 years ago (Dunstan 9). It was during this time that humans developed tools and primitive communication. During this period humans knew nothing of agriculture and where strictly hunters and gatherers. Humans did not build permanent settlements and followed the food. It was during this time that humans started to develop religion. They used religion to explain the world around them. At first humans believe that everything had a spirit and that they had to appease they spirits. This developed into religious cults that helped humans cope with all the mysteries of the world. During this period Humans started to produce different kinds of art. Humans painted in caves, often depicting hunting or animals (Dunstan 10-15).

The Neolithic period is from 10,000 BC to 4,000 BC. It describes the development of advanced stone working techniques and most importantly the development of agriculture. Around 12,000 BC permanent settlements started to appear in very fertile areas. It was here that humans started to harvest wild grains and that slowly evolved into agriculture. Agriculture was huge for humans. It allowed them to stay in one place and store food. Food stores allowed more leisure time, which encouraged the further development of religion, tools, art, and language. Agriculture allowed the human population to explode.

The advances during the Paleolithic and Neolithic ages helped lay down the foundation for the future. All the traits that humans had developed slowly evolved in complex civilizations of ancient times. Civilizations were able to develop because people were able to farm very efficiently and collect food surpluses. Towns turned into cities which were run by centralized governments. The religious beliefs of humans allowed theocracies to take power. Language and writing allowed large economies and the collection of tax’s (Dunstan 41-42).

These developments allowed the great civilizations of ancient times to develop grow and flourish. The Stone Age was when humans defined who we were and how we would act.

Question 2-A

Great civilizations arouse around the world, in ancient times. You had the great Mesopotamian civilizations in the Fertile Crescent. A great society arose in Egypt shortly after that. Both these societies developed extremely important traits and customs that defined there societies and left a lingering mark on history.

The ancient cultures of Mesopotamia developed many significant aspects that have lasting effects on the



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