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Aids

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AIDS

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Description:

AIDS, or Acquired ImmunoDeficiency Syndrome is the final stage of the HIV infection. AIDS is not something hereditary, but something you ACQUIRE after birth. A person can get AIDS if their immune system is not working the way it should, this is not everyone that has HIV advances to the final stage. The people that do advance to the final stage have really damaged immune systems, that’s why they have the risk of getting more infections. Rather than a single disease, AIDS is a syndrome (a collection of symptoms and signs of disease) because it is complex and has a wide range of symptoms and health complications. Medical treatment and intervention are required to prevent death.

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History:

It is presumed that the HIV virus that cause AIDS is transmitted to the African people between 1884 and 1924.

Around 1966, the virus entered Haiti.

Then, in 1981 the virus is detected in New York and California. It is first detected among the gay people.

Only one year later, in 1982 the name “AIDS-Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome-” is created. It also has reached Western countries which promote safer sex.

In 1983, 3000 cases of AIDS have been reported and 1000 died the same year.

In 1984, HIV is identified as the source of AIDS.

In 1990 around 8 million people is infected with AIDS.

The Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS is established in 1995.

In 2002 the Global Fund boosted the response to AIDS, TB and Malaria.

in 2007 it is estimated that 33 million people live with AIDS.

In 2014, global leaders commit to end the epidemic of the HIV in major cities in 2030.

Causes:

  • The virus of HIV can be found in blood, semen, vaginal fluid, and breast milk of infected people.
  • Although the virus is also founded in saliva, sweat, and tears, HIV cannot be transmitted to another person as there's not enough amounts of it.
  • Two of the most common ways to be infected with HIV in North America are:
  • Unprotected sex
  • Sharing needles
  • This virus is transmitted through unprotected heterosexual or homosexual sex. The risk of getting the virus is lower in oral sex, but it is still important to use protection during it (condoms and dental dams)
  • Another way of getting infected is through perinatal infection. Nowadays we have new treatments that decline the virus. Breast-feeding by an infected mother can also transmit HIV.

Symptoms:

  • Dry cough or shortness of breath
  • Difficult or painful swallowing
  • Diarrhea lasting for more than a week
  • White spots or unusual blemishes in and around the mouth
  • Pneumonia-like symptoms
  • Fever
  • Vision loss
  • Nausea, abdominal cramps, and vomiting
  • Red, brown, pink, or purplish blotches on or under the skin, inside the mouth, nose, or eyelids
  • Seizures
  • Lack of coordination
  • neurological disorders such as depression, memory loss, and confusion
  • severe headaches and neck stiffness
  • coma
  • development of various cancers

Levels of prevention

  • The primary prevention is in charge of the activities to avoid a given health problem. In the prevention of AIDS, this levels refers to prevent the uninfected people to become infected.
  • The secondary prevention takes care of identifying and treat asymptomatic persons with risk factors. This level focuses on taking care of the infected people, knowing their status and preventing discriminatory instances.
  • The tertiary prevention takes care of an established disease with minimum negative effects of the disease . Tertiary HIV prevention tries to minimise the effects of ill-health experienced by someone who has the symptoms of  the HIV disease (e.g. the preventive use of drugs and complementary therapies)

Bibliography:

Webmd.com, (2015). HIV Infection Causes: Needle Sharing, Sex, and More. [online] Available at: http://www.webmd.com/hiv-aids/guide/human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-infection-cause [Accessed 14 Jan. 2015].

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