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orn in a liberate and democratic atmosphere, I as well as people around me take freedom for granted. In our eyes, freedom is innate, coming hand in hand with the very first cry. The seeming GodЎЇs truth obviates the endeavor to obtain it, thus incarnating the equality of all inscribed in the Holy Scripture, which even in some part of the world today is still Arabian nights, let alone in turbulent climate then. The period during which the author Mark Twain lived could be called tumult itself when the legal rights for Afro-Americans had not yet been granted and the antagonism to slavery was in the prime. The uprising of John Brown brought the anti-slavery campaign to its zenith, promulgating the idea to numerous blacks who were enlightened only at this time. Their resistance to the planters, namely the interior force, together with exterior one from peace-loving people contrives to emancipate tens of thousands of slaves from the claws of racial discrimination.

Living in a social background as such, Mark Twain, the advocate for democracy for all, embodies his noble thoughts in the novel. Jim, the maroon, escapes from the plantation and seeks his way to Cairo where a newly impartial life can be anticipated. For him, or rather, a host of fugitive slaves like him, freedom is not like air or sunshine that is ubiquitous, but like almost a catch-22. Great efforts should be made if they are to get freedom. The road to paradise is bestrewed with brambles. Throughout his hegira, Jim wades through difficulties and setbacks now and again. The same applies to the abolition of slavery, and later the elimination of racial discrimination. There is no social progress but is at the expense of some of its components. The emancipation of black slaves undoubtedly impinged the interests of planters who reckon themselves on the cheap labor force of these slaves, so it is understandable that they bitterly oppose the Act.

Apart from freedom, another central theme of the novel is friendship, which is also vital to social well-being. As the saying goes, a father is a treasure, a brother a comfort, but a friend is both. In the book, true friendship between Jim and Huck is represented on a higher level. Albeit Jim is black, Huck simply pays no attention to that. Admittedly, there were millions of anti-slavery people then, I donЎЇt bracket Huck with them. For me, Huck is still too young to possess the idea of racism. Out of his kind nature, Huck treats Jim fraternally. In his eyes, he sees no major difference in complexion. Since he is attempting to go into exile, caring whether Jim is black or not is unnecessary or rather luxurious. With the same goal, they stand closer. It is only when Huck has witnessed JimЎЇs sufferings is he aware of the injustice of the world.

Freedom and friendship are among the most crucial elements of a beatific



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