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Abdominalcavity

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Most human beings never really ponder the complexity of their own inner workings. This report is focused on the very important portion of the body known as the abdominal cavity. There are many organs that need to function in tandem in the abdominal cavity. These organs consist of the: stomach, liver, gallbladder, spleen, pancreas, small intestine, and large intestine. Most of these organs function to extract nutrients from food, and excrete waste from the body, however, not all of these organs are confined to solely that purpose.

*The Stomach-The stomach is full of acid, which combined with enzymes(specifically designed for that purpose) break down the food that we eat, to eventually be absorbed into the smaller intestines. The stomach is broken into four equally important parts the cardia, the fundus, the body, and the pyloric antrum.

The cardia or lower esophageal sphincter is the portion of the stomach where the contents from the esophagus are deposited. While it allows the masticated food into the stomach, it doesn't allow the chyme into the esophagus. It is basically a one way valve.

The fundus is the rounded top portion of the stomach. It can store undigested food for up to one hour, although it's main purpose is to allow gases from the digestion process to accumulate.

The body of the stomach is where food is digested through the constant churning motions the stomach produces, the stomach acid, and the enzymes. The digested food or chyme is then stored in this part of the stomach.

The pyloric antrum is signaled to produce more stomach acid, and to contract and dilate pushing the chyme into the small intestine. It is located at the very end of the stomach, and connects to the small intestines portion of the duodendum.

*Liver- The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body. Veins connect the liver to the spleen, stomach, pancreas, small intestines, and the large intestines. These veins carry blood to the organ, so that the liver can filter out nutrients and the byproducts of digestion. However, the liver is designated to over five hundred different functions.

*Gallbladder- The gallbladders purpose is to secrete vial. The brain sends a signal when fatty foods enter the digestion tract, and bile is released into the stomach to help break down the fat molecules. The gallbladder is green in color because of it's contents, and not it's tissue.

*Spleen- The spleens job is to destroy old blood cells, and to hold a reservoir of new blood cells. It is located beside the liver, and stomach, where they overlap.

*Pancreas- The pancreas is a dual functioning glad. It has both endocrine, and exocrine secreting properties. This organ itself secretes pancreatic juice containing enzymes, it also produces the hormones: insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin.

Insulin-Informs the brain that the body isn't in a state of malnutrition and can change the sugars in the system to something that can be excreted from the body, or stored in the form of glycogen.

Glucagon-This hormone is released when the gucose level in the blood is too low. When it is secreted it signals the brain to release the pent up glucagon and change it into glucose the body can use.

Somatostatin- is made with the main purpose being to stop the body from producing the growth hormone.

*The Small Intestines-The small intestines further the digestion process, and is about 20 ft. long. Although it is much larger than the large intestine it is named for it's length. It is around 20 ft. long by the time we reach five. There are three parts that make up the small intestine: the duodendum, the jejunum, and the ileum.

The duodendum is the first part of the small intestine, when traveling from the stomach. This section is the main part in the small intestine that actually breaks the remaining food particals down chemically. There are four subdivisions of the duodendum, they are the superior, the descending(which houses the Brunner's glands), the inferior and the ascending. These four parts together form the signature 'C' shape.

The jejunum is the mid portion that transitions the matter into the ileum. It also absorbs the biproducts of digestion. It has the finger-like villi, and

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