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Security Terminology

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Autor:   •  September 7, 2010  •  755 Words (4 Pages)  •  379 Views

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Security

Terminology

Define the following terms:

1. Authentication - ability to identify who it is

a. ACL - (access control list) is associated w/ a given resource. Describes groups, users, machines and their permissions associated with that particular resource.

i. Token- one time only password key

b. CA- certificate of authority- creates certificates -system or entity trusted to generate and distribute digital certificates. Can be privately used or from a 3rd party e-commerce site. Verifies identity of user. Authentication method.

c. RA- Registration Authority-issues certificates-RA verifies credentials supplied by an agent and then sends the CA an okay to issue a certificate.

d. PKI- Public Key Infrastructure- Policies and behaviors that surround the deployment and management of key pairs. How you issue two keys at one time.

e. Kerberos- Authentication method used by Microsoft. Uses 3 different protocols, listed below

i. TGT- Ticket granting ticket. Allows you to request resources on the network from servers.

ii. TGS- Ticket granting server. Accesses a particular network server for tickets.

iii. AS- Authentication Server. Equivalent to a morning check-in at security desk of a hotel. Checks the identity of a server.

f. CHAP- Challenge handshake authentication protocol. Was designed to replace the PAP. Communication between server and client proving identity.

i. MS-CHAP- Microsoft CHAP

g. PAP- Password authentication protocol

h. X.509- digital certificate that uniquely identifies a party. Standard structure of a certificate.

i. KDC- Key distribution center

j. Biometrics- Authentications based on human anatomy.

k. Multifactor- Authentication based on 2 valid authentication methods.

l. Mutual Authentication- Client establishes identity to server. Server provides authentication information to client to ensure that illicit servers cannot masquerade as genuine servers. Both parties have to authenticate.

2. Encryption- hiding data using algorithms. protection, method of code, algorithms, formulas

a. Asymmetric keys- pair of key values one public and one private.

b. Symmetric keys- single encryption key generated.

c. DES- Data Encryption standard developed by government.

d. Diffie-hellman- encryption algorithm named after its two creators.

e. IPSec- used for encryption of TCP/IP traffic. Method of encrypting any IP transmissions.

f. PGP- Pretty good privacy- mainly used in email less secure than the PKI.

g. RSA- Rivest-Shamir-Adleman- encryption algorithm named after its 3 creators. Using two pair keys.

h. SSL- Secure Socket Loader- used mainly on web servers to transmit securely via HTTPS://

3. Network protocols and organization

a. DMZ- Demilitarized zone- Zone used for public access. Used with FTP, web servers and DNS servers.

b. IDS- Intrusion Detection System- 2 types: Active and Passive

c. NAT- Network Address Translation- Appends to your logical port. Protects internal hosts. Used with proxy servers. Translates internal IP to Real IP. Uses unique port table. There is 65,000 ports

d. Tunneling- ability to go to 1 point to another as though you are a single proprietary line. 1

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