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Autor: anton • November 21, 2010 • 1,147 Words (5 Pages) • 641 Views
Examination Two: Paper II
Parenting styles incorporates two important components: parent responsiveness and parental demandingness. The first component, parent responsiveness refers to Ð²Ð‚Ñšthe extent to which parents intentionally foster, individuality, self-regulation, and self-assertion by being attuned, supportive, and acquiescent to childrenÐ²Ð‚™s special needs and demandsÐ²Ð‚Ñœ (Baumrind, 1991, p.62). Parental demandingness refers to Ð²Ð‚Ñš the claims parents make on children to become integrated into the family whole, by their maturity demands, supervision, disciplinary efforts, and willingness to confront the child who disobeysÐ²Ð‚Ñœ (Baumrind, 1991, pp.61-62). Thus, parenting styles are categorized according to the two components outlined in three basic parenting styles: authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative.
Regardless of having absolutely no prior experience in childrearing, my parenting style of choice is authoritative method. Authoritative parenting is based on high parental demands on obedience, maturity, and other clear expectations. However, despite such expectations of authoritative parenting, they have a tendency to be flexible if the child Ð²Ð‚Ñšfalls shortÐ²Ð‚Ñœ. The flexibility of authoritative parenting is significant because parents listen to their child, which catalyzes discussion. Parent to child discussions are very important because they listen to the childÐ²Ð‚™s complaint and concerns. The parents recognize that the child has a voice and thus allows to some extent freedom to cultivate their childÐ²Ð‚™s individualism and self-esteem. On the other hand, authoritarians expect their child to accept their word is law without question, which does not allow their child any choice or options. Permissive parents are too lenient and may not be as involved with the child as they should be. Overall, authoritative parenting is the best method that provides a balance for child in emotional responsiveness, external conformity, and acknowledges child autonomy.
Child maltreatment occurs frequently, many cases go unreported, and many of the times parents are often the offenders. Child maltreatment is a general term used to describe all forms of child abuse: physical, emotional, or sexual well-being. Physical abuse is a non-accidental injury from a caregiver to child that often involves shaking, punching, biting, kicking, beating, slapping or even burning. Emotional abuse involves verbal harassment of a child by belittling, threatening, or intimidating a child. Sexual abuse is involvement of dependent and immature child. A child or adolescent are unable to fully comprehend and are unable to give knowledgeable consent. This particular abuse includes fondling, touching, and penetration. Neglect also is a form of child abuse where the caregiver fails to meet the basic emotional and physical needs of a child. The typical forms of neglect concern: proper housing, medical care, clothing, food, and education.
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services defines physical child abuse as "any non-accidental physical injury to the child, and can include striking, kicking, burning, or biting the child, or any action that results in a physical impairment of the child." Striking which is considered a synonym of spanking is not a form of abuse because it does not result in child physical impairment. According to Merriam-Webster, impairment is defined as Ð²Ð‚Ñšto damage or make worse by or as if by diminishing in some material respect.Ð²Ð‚Ñœ For instance, a simple Ð²Ð‚Ñštwo-swat spankingÐ²Ð‚Ñœ in a covered bottom or a slap on the wrist does not constitute as abuse because it does not inflict any health impairments on a child. In addition, such spanking or striking should also not be considered as abuse because it should be only done out of love. Spanking should never serve as an outlet for parental release of anger that can lead to extremities like abuse.
Spanking should only be used in moderation and does have risks because it has several side effects. Child who is frequently spanked may feel insecure, they may feel that spanking is a way to solve problems, and that violence is acceptable. Therefore, I must reemphasize in order to use spanking parents must consider the following: explain to the child their for reason for such punishment (as a authoritative parent would do),