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Autor: anton • December 6, 2010 • 1,130 Words (5 Pages) • 306 Views
U.S. History Review
1. Wilson wanted to overcome the opposition of war in U.S. so he crouched American war aims in disinterested and idealistic terms: The U.S. he claimed, wanted "peace without victory", a "war for democracy," and liberty for the worlds oppressed peoples.
2. Triple Alliance : Germany , Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire.
3. Triple Entente : Great Britain, France, and Russia. Later the U.S.A joined.
4. American Trade prior to the war was with both Germany and France. Also Ties with Great Britain.
5. Groups that supported WW's efforts to stay out of war were also supporters of The Peace movement. Which included The National American Women Suffrage Association, The Women's peace party, progressives, and socialists joined hands in the American Union Against Militarism and pressures Wilson to continue pursuing the path of peace.
6. Chairman Of W.I.B. Bernard Baruch. Established by WW to harness manufacturing might to military needs. Baruch permitted industrialists to charge high prices for their product, increasing their profits significantly. He hired investment bankers and corporate lawyers. Exposed his oppositions to public. War Production increased a lot, and cooperation between the public and private sectors was discovered by manufacturers. The corporate violated the progressive pledge to protect the people against "interest". The cost of war ended up $33 billion when he estimated cost was $11 Billion.
7. Gave the laborers higher wages. (couldn't find anything else.)
8. William Taft as Cochairman. It brought together representatives of labor, industry, and the public to resolve labor disputes. Presence of Gompers, on the board gave unions a national voice in government affairs. He was expected to mobilize workers behind Wilson, discredit socialist who criticized the war, and discourage strikes that encouraged war production. NWLB lacked the ability to impose its will, it managed to pressure many manufacturers into improving wages and hours, reducing wage discrimination, and allowing their workers to join unions.
9. 1/3 came from increased taxes and 2/3 came from "Liberty Bonds".
10. Committee on Public Information (CPI) was set up by WW to publicize and popularize the war. Chairman Ð'- George Creel. 75 million pamphlets explaining the war. Trained 75000 "four minute men" to deliver succinct uplifting war speeches. Tried showing Americans that it entered the war "to make the world safe for democracy."
11. (Espionage and) Sedition Act- Congress gave WW's administration sweeping powers to silence and even imprison dissenters. Contributed the most drastic free speech restriction since the Alien Sedition Acts.
13. "Total war" meaning that combatants devoted virtually all their resources to the fight. Economically, politically, and financially.
14. Machine Guns, artillery, gas, U-Boats, and submarine warefare.
15. Provide international assistance to control peace. Promote Peace throughout the world.
16. Fourteen Points Ð'- Settling Territorial settlements. Reaffirmed Americas commitment to an international system governed by laws rather than by might and renounced territorial aggrandizement as a legitimate war aim. 2 Points, 1) all nations to abide by a code of conduct that embraced free trade, freedom of the seas, open diplomacy, disarmament, and resolution of disputes through mediation, 2) Europe to give subjugated peoples of the Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman, and Russian empires national sovereignty.
17. The Peace of Versailles was an unsatisfactory compromise with little chance of ensuring an enduring peace. Each of the 'Big Three' had different aims which had to be modified in order to reach an overall agreement and the Germans were not even allowed to take part in the negotiations. Germany was humiliated, the French didn't feel completely secure, the British had wanted the re-establishment of trade more than anything else and the Americans had had to give up on their ideals of self determination where Germany was concerned.
18. A nation-wide anti-radical hysteria provoked by a mounting fear and anxiety that a Bolshevik revolution in America was imminent--a revolution that would destroy property, church, home, marriage, civility, and the American way of life.
19. Marcus Garvey Ð'- Jamaican. NAACP. Back to Africa. Believed Blacks should have own country. He was not successful. Called for black nationalism. He was deported back to Jamaica. But his legacy lived.
20. Welfare Capitalism Ð'- to encourage loyalty to the firm and to the capitalist system. American context to the practice of businesses providing welfare-like services