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Autor: anton • July 2, 2011 • 2,094 Words (9 Pages) • 1,817 Views
The importance of organizations in modern economy and development of new and large organization are facts that make the issues like efficiency and control on the centre of attention in different social sciences . Efficiency in organization is directly linked with its organizational system. This essay firstly will review the characteristics of bureaucracy in organization on base of classical theory. Secondly it will outline the advantages and disadvantages of bureaucracy by focus on WeberÐ²Ð‚™s bureaucratic model. Finally it will discuss why bureaucracy is not always suitable to every organization.
WeberÐ²Ð‚™s bureaucratic model:
Weber mentioned that his bureaucratic model is an ideal and logical model for setting up an organization. It means that the model under question is not a guideline for operating the daily works.According to his later works the model includes this basic characteristics as R.Fincham and P.Rhodes put it:
Ð²Ð‚¦1. A staff consisting a body of employees whose full-time work was to administer the activities of the institution. As well as simply a body of people, this also consist of a people, this also consist of a structure of 'offices' such that the employee's post carries authority over specific areas, but it is a cardinal principle that the incumbent should not overstep the bounds of the authority of the office.
2.A division of labour which assigns specific task to sub-units and individuals. The division of labour in bureaucracies is highly developed departmental boundaries and individual jobs are closely specified and duties and responsibilities carefully set out.
3.The hierarchy, division of power ,involves the ranking of offices to provide clear line of command. In bureaucracy the hierarchy also is typically very complex, its many levels providing a highly differentiated structure of authority.
4.Competence refers to the basic upon which office is held. Factors like luck, favouritism, or advancement should be decided by expertise and ability alone.
5.Objectivity suggests that all dealing within the bureaucracy and with client should be conducted on the basis of equal treatment according to procedural routine. The objective conduct of business ,free from any personal feeling, is the basis of the reliability of formal administrationÐ²Ð‚¦:(1970 quoted in Fincham .Rhodes 2005 ,p.446).
Bureaucracy is one of the theories of classical approach in management. This attitude closely relates to formal organization because the idea of bureaucracy formed basically for explaining and improving the efficiency of such organisation, then for finding more precise conception from Bureaucracy it seems important to figuring out the principles of formal organisation. According to Urwick's (1952) explanation of formal organization(quoted in Jack Rabin, W. Bartley Hildreth, Gerald Miller 2006,p.66) Ten principles must be used in building up formal organizational: (1)objective, (2)specialization, (3)coordination, (4)authority, (5)responsibility, (6)definition, (7)correspondence, (8)span of control, (9)balance , (10)continuity. From above definitions, it can be seen that the standardization, predictability, maximum efficiency are expected from formal organization.
Advantages of Weberian conception of bureaucracy:
Bureaucracy in Weberian model like any other conceptions of business has some advantages and some disadvantages. Three features of this model here will be discuss as most important and essential features namely the concept of division of labour, the concept of hierarchy and also the concept of objectivity. As a methodological consideration it seems important to note that examining the idea of bureaucracy in terms of advantages and disadvantages can be viewed from both ethical and economical points of view. At the same time these different perspectives are related to each other by means of the concept of Ð²Ð‚ÑšefficiencyÐ²Ð‚Ñœ and the measure of satisfaction from working experience for employees.Bureaucracy by means of combination of hierarchy and division of labour can restrict the harmful forms of authorities which may lead to unfair circumstances for employees. Because in the absence of such a rational rules a person from higher level of power can easily ignore the rights of employees and this is one of reasons we need bureaucracy for. Authority, according to Weber (In 1947 as quoted in R.J.Dwyer 2005), can come from different roots and to be acceptable it needs to be legitimise . This is the point connects the Weber's theory of legitimised authorities with his account of bureaucracy. If some kind of illigitimised authority exist in an organisation can affect the efficiency of an active organisation. Bureaucracies is the very idea that play the role of legitimiser in organisation. The features by which bureaucracy can avoid this problem(the effects of illegitimate authority) is the idea of division of labours and hierarchical structures as crucial features of the general hypothesis of bureaucracy. Consider, for example, the condition under which there is no pre-defined hierarchy and division of labour. In such conditions that there are no division labour, persons who has higher level of authority can easily abuse the employee and there is nothing for employee by which he/she be able to argue that he/she done his duty. Because without division labours here would not be any common and widely accepted definition of each individual in economical sphere. It seems clear that division labour makes the organisation more fair for employees and having the feeling of working in fair circumstance can cause more responsibilities in workers and employees. This point is directly related to division of power that considered as Ð²Ð‚ÑšhierarchyÐ²Ð‚Ñœ.
The concept of objectivity indicates that the interactions between client and organisation must be structured in a way that personal feelings and judgements of employees do not play any role in operating an organisation. According to this principle client should be treated equally an just on the basis of formal and structural instruction of organisation or business. From an Ethical point of view this latter principle is so important and can offer higher degree of fairness to wider range of peoples. At the same time these different perspectives are related to each other by means of the concept of efficiency and satisfaction from working experience for employees.
The concept of division of labours in structured hierarchy(A.Bennet 2006) has also some practical advantages to enable organisations against unexpected troubles . One case of this advantage is visible when shocks or unexpected troubles accrue in a particular section of organisation, in such